Posted in Biograhpy by admin Who was Aristotle?
Kinds of Knowledge There are in knowledge three fundamental differences that Aristotle takes cognizance of in his theory of knowledge: Knowledge may have for its object causes or first principles or phenomena. Its method may be apodictic demonstrative or dialectic "probable".
Its source may be sense or reason. In the knowledge of causes is involved the knowledge of whatever else can be shown demonstratively to flow from them ; and a theory of scientific knowledge is an account of the source from, or faculty by, which we get the knowledge of causes, and of the method of demonstration.
Now it was natural, both from the previous history of speculation and the character of the problem itself, that Aristotle should consider the latter part of the problem of scientific knowledge first, which he does, particularly in the Prior Analytics.
Demostration Considered as regards method, knowledge is scientific, or demonstrative, when it is derived from certain, or necessary, premises by a certain, or necessary, process of reasoning.
The Syllogism Deductive Now the process in which, certain things being assumed as true, a certain other thing obtains, necessarily and because of the things assumed, is called by Aristotle the Syllogism 1.
The syllogism is, therefore, the central point in the method of demonstration expounded by Aristotle; it was regarded, and rightly so, as his own discovery 2. The middle term is so called because it is the mean, or uniting term, in the syllogism 3.
Propositions may be either affirmative or negative, universal, particular, or indefinite. There are four sorts of propositions that may enter into the syllogism: Of contradictory opposites, if one be true, the other is false: A syllogism in which the minor term is "in the whole middle" i.
In a syllogism of this figure the middle term lies "between" the extremes. A syllogism in which both major and minor terms are "in [less than] the whole middle i. A syllogism in which the major and minor terms are each greater than the middle i.
The "fourth figure" of modern text-books was not recognized by Aristotle; it did not spring out of his conception of the syllogism. Now the first figure is the only one that gives universal conclusions; the second figure giving only negative conclusions, and the third only "particular" conclusions.
It is also the only figure that yields naturally and directly in the conclusion all that is contained in the premises and no more. We can sometimes derive a universal conclusion from the premises of a syllogism of the second and third figures, but this can be done only indirectly; hence these figures are "imperfect," the first alone being "perfect.
The latter, however, may obtain when the former does not ; but if the latter does not obtain, the former does not 8. The knowledge of the essence of a thing embraces a knowledge of the common and characteristic attributes of the class, or genus, to which it belongs and of the specific attribute that renders the thing an individual representative of the class.
Substance is whatever is the subject of attributes, e. Substance in the primary sense is the individual, species and genus being only secondary substance Of these ten—termed categories—substance is principal; all others imply it. These are everywhere employed by Aristotle.
The idea of a table of categories may have been suggested to him by the Pythagorean table see The Pytagorean PhylosophyTheories not purely Pythagorean.
These categories were not "deduced" in any manner from a higher conception by Aristotle, but were taken empirically, as suggested, perhaps, by the fundamental forms, or "parts," of speech in the Greek language. Syllogism Inductive Now causes in the knowledge of which or of what can be syllogistically shown to flow from them scientific knowledge consiststhough visible to the eye of reason, are not known to us immediately.
Knowable things are of two kinds: Of the latter-named kind are causes, or first principles Biography of Aristotle Essays - Aristotle was a Greek philosopher and scientist who lived from B.C who was born in Stagira, Macedonia.
His father played a major role in society as a physician in the royal court. Young Aristotle took a liking to Plato and decided to go to his academy at the age of seventeen.
This letter remains, and contains a substantial, though brief, biography of Aristotle. The historian and critic Dionysius was born at Halicarnassus in the first century BC. What is . Born in the city of Stagira, Chalcidice, Aristotle was the student of Plato and a classical Greek philosopher and scientist.
His father, Nicomachus, was a physician at the court of King Amyntus III of Macedonia and his mother too was a member of the traditional medical units. Born in the city of Stagira, Chalcidice, Aristotle was the student of Plato and a classical Greek philosopher and scientist.
|Biography of Aristotle||He spent five years on the coast of Asia Minor as a guest of former students at Assos and Lesbos.|
|Diogenes Laertius||The life and time of the Greek Philosopher Sources to Aristotle's life Diogenes Laertius Dionysius of Halicarnassus Though Aristotle is such a magnificent figure in philosophy, the sources to his life are scarce indeed.|
His father, Nicomachus, was a physician at the court of King Amyntus III of Macedonia and his mother too . A Brief Biography of Aristotle Essays - Aristotle Born in B.C.
in Stagira, Greece, little did the world know that there would be such great teachings, philosophies, theories, and laws to come all from this one person: Aristotle.
Aristotle contributed to so many of societies . Aristotle made many discoveries and interesting observations. Tutoring Alexander the Great In BC, Philip II of Macedonia asked Aristotle to tutor his son Alexander. Aristotle spent the next several years teaching Alexander a wide range of subjects including philosophy, logic, and mathematics.