Reading this book did more than just make me more aware of something I already, somewhat subconsciously, was doing, however.
Literary and linguistic branches[ edit ] Systemic functional linguistics[ edit ] Main article: Systemic functional linguistics Systemic functional linguistics scholars believe that language is organized within cultures based on cultural ideologies.
The "systemic" of SFL refers to the system as a whole, in which linguistic choices are made. SFL is based largely on the work of Michael Halliday, who believed that individuals make linguistic choices based on the ideologies of the systems that those individuals inhabit.
For Halliday, there is a "network of meanings" within a culture, that constitutes the "social semiotic" of that culture. This "social semiotic" is encoded and maintained by the discourse system of the culture.
Martin led the SFL pedagogical approach, which emphasized the role of context in text formation. Martin and his associates believed that process-based approaches to education ignored the cultural boundaries of texts, and privileged middle- and upper- class students at the expense of students from lower-class backgrounds.
Focusing on genre reveals the contexts that influences texts, and teaches those contexts to students, so that they can create texts that are culturally informed. English for Specific Purposes English for Specific Purposes scholarship has been around since the s, but ESP scholars did not begin using genre as a pedagogical approach until the s, when John Swales published Genre Analysis: English in Academic and Research Settings, in which Swales laid out the methodological approach that brought together ESP and genre analysis.
Both believe that linguistic features are connected to social context and function, and both aim to help disadvantaged students grasp the system in which texts are created so that they can create similar texts, by teaching them the relationship between language and social function.
Both try to accomplish their goals by teaching specific genres to underprivileged users. Whereas SFL scholars focus on teaching basic genre structures to primary and secondary school students, ESP scholars are focused on teaching Professional and Academic disciplinary genres to University- and graduate-level students.
ESP students tend to be more bound to discursive genre subjects, within very particular contexts.
Miller's essay "Genre as Social Action," which was published in Genres are typified ways of responding to recurring social constructions.
Carol Berkenkotter and Thomas Huckin begin with the notion that genre is knowledge foundation, and argue that genres embody communities' knowledge and ways of acting. As such, it is dynamic, because the conditions of social activity are always in flux. Recurrence, they claim, involves variation. Anne Freadman uses uptake to describe the ways in which genres interact with each other in her articles "Uptake" and "Anyone for Tennis?
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