Individuals with intellectual disabilities ID, formerly mental retardation benefit from the same teaching strategies used to teach people with other learning challenges.
Maria Montessori, an Italian educationalist. Here are five alternative approaches to education.
Montessori, who previously worked with special needs students, rejected the notion that children were born as "blank slates. Montessori developed the framework for a prepared educational environment in which children, empowered with the freedom to choose how they would spend their time in school, would seek out opportunities to learn on their own.
Her pioneering work formed the basis for the Montessori classroom, which endures primarily in preschool and elementary school settings today.
Montessori students are free to spend large blocks of the day however they choose, while the teacher, or director, observes. Montessori was a major proponent of tactile learning. Montessori classes typically span three-year age groups. The lack of grades, tests, and Alternative teaching methods forms of formal assessment helps ensure that classes remain non-competitive.
The New York Times described the school as follows: The little pupils in the big sunny classroom at Tarrytown are normal, happy, healthy American children, little sons and daughters of well-to-do suburban residents.
A study comparing outcomes of children at a public inner-city Montessori school with children who attended traditional schools provided evidence that Montessori education leads to children with better social and academic skills.
Among the many celebrities who can attest to the value of a Montessori education are Google co-founders Sergey Brin and Lawrence Page.
Influenced by the likes of Goethe and Jean Piaget, Steiner believed there were three 7-year periods of child development, and his educational approach reflected what he thought should and should not be taught during each of these stages. The curriculum that defines the Waldorf method has remained relatively unchanged in the last 90 years.
To that end, kindergartners in Waldorf schools are encouraged to play and interact with their environment instead of being taught academic content in a traditional setting.
Steiner also believed that children should learn to write before they learned to read, and that no child should learn to read before the age of 7. From agecreativity and imagination are emphasized.
During this stage, Waldorf school students may learn foreign languages, as well as eurythmy, an expressive dance developed by Steiner, and other performing arts. By age 14, students are ready for a more structured environment that stresses social responsibility.
Some critics of the Waldorf method argue that it borders on religion.
According to the curriculum, students learn about Christian saints in second grade and Old Testament figures in third grade. Rudolf Steiner College, which was founded in in Fair Oaks, California, serves as the center for anthroposophical studies and the training ground for future generations of Waldorf teachers.
Developed by oil magnate and philanthropist Edward Harkness, a large, oval table is the centerpiece of any classroom that employs the Harkness method of teaching. Students sit with their classmates and teacher around the table and discuss any and all subjects, from calculus to history, often in great detail.
The Harkness method represents a significant departure from the traditional classroom setup of a teacher at a chalkboard lecturing to students seated in rows of desks. No conversation is ever the same, which can help teachers avoid the burnout that might result from teaching the same lesson from year to year.
InHarkness gave a multi-million dollar donation to Phillips Exeter Academy, a private secondary school in New Hampshire, under the condition that the money be used to implement a new educational method that would involve all students in the learning process.
This was imperative, as the Harkness method is most effective in classes of 15 students or less. Lewis Perry told the New York Times in the early years of the program.
In short, the Harkness plan is best defined as an attitude. It is a new approach to the problem of getting at the individual boy.Following are some resources for alternative feeding methods, including bottle feeding, cup/dropper/spoon feeding, finger feeding, supplementing at the breast, and ideas for older babies.
Research Methods in Language Learning helps readers understand and critique research. This book is intended to help readers understand and critique research in language learning. GET STARTED: Find test dates/locations, materials, and more.
Traditional education, also known as back-to-basics, conventional education or customary education, refers to long-established customs that society traditionally used in caninariojana.com forms of education reform promote the adoption of progressive education practices, a more holistic approach which focuses on individual students' needs and self-control.
The term teaching method refers to the general principles, pedagogy and management strategies used for classroom instruction.. Your choice of teaching method depends on what fits you — your educational philosophy, classroom demographic, subject area(s) and school mission statement.
This module provides a description of the basic principles and procedures of the most recognized and commonly used approaches and methods for teaching a second or foreign language.