Grievance Management Industrial conflicts are the results of several socio-economic, psychological and political factors. Various lines of thoughts have been expressed and approaches used to explain his complex phenomenon. To a politician, industrial conflict is a war of different ideologies — perhaps a class-war. Psychological approach The problems of IR have their origin in the perceptions of the management, unions and the workers.
Different Approaches to Industrial Relations Different Approaches to Industrial Relations The industrial relations scenario has been perceived differently by different practitioners and theorists.
Some have viewed it in terns of class conflict; some have viewed it in terms of mutuality of interest of different groups; some have viewed it as a consequence of interaction of various factors both within an organization and outside it.
Based on these orientations, several approaches to industrial relations have been developed. To a politician, industrial conflict is a war of different ideologies — perhaps a class-war. Most important approaches to industrial Approaches to industrial relation the general are discussed as follows: The Marxist Approach The class conflict analysis of industrial relations derives its impetus from Marxist social thinking and interpretation.
Marxism is essentially a method of social enquiry into the power relationships of society and a way of interpreting social reality. The application of Marxian theory as it relates to industrial relations derives indirectly from later Marxist scholars rather than directly from the works of Marx himself.
Industrial relations, according to Marxists, are in the first instance, market-relations. To Marxists, industrial relations are essentially politicized and part of the class struggle. For Marxists industrial and employee relations can only be understood as part of a broader analysis of capitalist society in particular the social relations of production and the dynamics of capital accumulation.
It is also characterized by the struggle of these classes to consolidate and strengthen their respective positions with a view to exerting greater influence on each other. In this approach, industrial relations is equated with a power-struggle. The price payable for labor is determined by a confrontation between conflicting interests.
The capitalist ownership of the enterprise endeavors to purchase labor at the lowest possible price in order to maximize their profits. The lower the price paid by the owner of the means of production for the labor he employs, the greater is his profit. The Marxist analysis of industrial relations, however, is not a comprehensive approach as it only takes into account the relations between capital and labor.
It is rather, a general theory of society and of social change, which has implications for the analysis of industrial relations within what Marxists would describe as capitalist societies. The Pluralist Approach Pluralism is a major theory in labor-management relations, which has many powerful advocates.
According to him, the social environment is an important factor in industrial conflicts. The isolated masses of workers are more strike-prone as compared to dispersed groups. They claim that there has been a decline in strike activity all over the world in spite of an increase in union membership.
The theories on pluralism were evolved in the mid-sixties and early seventies when England witnessed a dramatic resurgence of industrial conflicts. However, the recent theories of pluralism emanate from British scholars, and in particular from Flanders and Fox.
According to Flanders, conflict is inherent in the industrial system. He highlighted the need for a formal system of collective bargaining as a method of conflict resolution.
Fox distinguishes between two distinct aspects of relationship between workers and management.
The first is the market relationship, which concerns with the terms and conditions on which labor is hired. This relationship is essentially economic in character and based on contracts executed between the parties. The major critics of the pluralist approach are the Marxists according to whom exploitation and slavery will continue unabated in the institutional structure of pluralism.
The only difference is that in such a social structure, the worker will be deemed to be a better-paid wage slave. Whyte, and Homans offers a coherent view of the nature of industrial conflict and harmony. The human relations approach highlights certain policies and techniques to improve employee morale, efficiency and job satisfaction.
It encourages the small work group to exercise considerable control over its environment and in the process helps to remove a major irritant in labor-management relations.
But there was reaction against the excessive claims of this school of thought in the sixties. Some of its views were criticized by Marxists, pluralists, and others on the ground that it encouraged dependency and discouraged individual development, and ignored the importance of technology and culture in industry.
Taking a balanced view, however, it must be admitted that the human relations school has thrown a lot of light on certain aspects such as communication, management development, acceptance of workplace as a social system, group dynamics, and participation in management.
The Gandhian Approach Gandhiji can be called one of the greatest labor leaders of modern India. His approach to labor problems was completely new and refreshingly human. He held definite views regarding fixation and regulation of wages, organisation and functions of trade unions, necessity and desirability of collective bargaining, use and abuse of strikes, labor indiscipline, workers participation in management, conditions of work and living, and duties of workers.
The Ahmedabad Textile Labor Association, a unique and successful experiment in Gandhian trade unionism, implemented many of his ideas. Gandhiji had immense faith in the goodness of man and he believed that many of the evils of the modern world have been brought about by wrong systems and not by wrong individuals.
He insisted on recognizing each individual worker as a human being. He was not against strikes but pleaded that they should be the last weapon in the armory of industrial workers and hence should not be resorted to unless all peaceful and constitutional methods of negotiations, conciliation and arbitration are exhausted.INTRODUCTION OF THE INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS INTRODUCTION unions and management but also refers to the general web of relationships normally obtaining between employers and employees-a web much more APPROACHES TO INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS.
Industrial relations: Industrial relations, the behaviour of workers in organizations in which they earn their living. Scholars of industrial relations attempt to explain variations in the conditions of work, the degree and nature of worker participation in decision making, the role of labour unions and other forms of.
As industries develop, a new industrial-cum-social pattern emerges, which provides general new relationships, institutions and behavioural pattern and new techniques of handling human resources.
These do influence the development of industrial relations. Human relations approach Human resources are made up of living human beings. Industrial relations scholars such as Alan Fox have described three major theoretical perspectives or frameworks, that contrast in their understanding and analysis of workplace relations.
The three views are generally known as . This entry was posted in Human Resource Management and tagged approaches industrial relations, Approaches to Industrial Relations, concept of industrial approaches, Gandhian Approach, Human relations Approach, industrial relations approaches, John Dunlop Approach, Marxist Approach, Psychological Approach, Sociological Approach, .
Industrial relations scholars such as Alan Fox have described three major theoretical perspectives or frameworks, that contrast in their understanding and analysis of workplace relations.
The three views are generally known as unitarism, pluralism, and the radical or critical school.