Definition, purpose, and basic steps of DNA cloning.
Biotechnology and Types of Cloning By: Cloning in biotechnology is intentional cloning of an organism or molecular cloning of DNA fragments. In biotechnology scientists mainly use three types of cloning, known as reproductive cloning, therapeutic cloning and DNA cloning Cloning is a process of producing genetically identical organisms that already occur in nature.
Cloning is asexual reproduction method. In nature microorganisms such as bacteria, and also plants reproduce asexually or by cloning method. In biotechnology scientists mainly use three types of cloning, known as reproductive cloning, therapeutic cloning and DNA cloning.
Types of Cloning in Biotechnology: Cloning which are used for producing the exact copy of an existing organism are called as reproductive cloning.
Reproductive cloning is performed using a technique known as Biotechnology cloning cell nuclear transfer. During this procedure nucleus is extracted from a somatic cell. Somatic cell is any cell from the body other than the germ cell.
Then the nucleus of the egg is also removed, the extracted nucleus is then transferred into enucleated egg. Egg starts to divide after receiving the external stimuli. Egg will divide and grow and finally will develop into an embryo. This embryo is then implanted into a gestational surrogate mother.
Reproductive cloning has some issues like; clones which are produced have shorter lifespan when compared with the parent species. Reproductive cloning also imposes the risk of losing genetic diversity of the nature. Biotechnology cloning used for the purpose of medical treatment are known as therapeutic cloning.
Therapeutic cloning is mainly used to grow organs, which can then be used to replace the non functional organs of a patient. It can also be used to generate the skin to treat burn victims, can be used to create nerve cells to treat patients suffering from nerve degenerative diseases.
Therapeutic cloning like reproductive cloning is also done by using somatic cell nuclear transfer techniques.
The main difference is that the dividing egg is used to extract stem cells. Extracted stem cells are then used to produce required organs, by growing them in the suitable media. Therapeutic cloning plays a major role in medical treatment.
Doctors with the help of therapeutic cloning technique can grow replacement organs for damaged body parts of the patients. These organs are genetically and immunologically same as the patient's own organ. Therefore it reduces the usage of immunosuppressant drugs and also the risk of organ rejection by the body.
This technique can be used to clone random fragment of DNA, specific sequence of DNA or can be used to clone entire gene sequence. DNA cloning process comprises many steps; first the interested DNA fragment is extracted from the genome, by the help of restriction enzymes or can be synthesized chemically.
Polymerase chain reaction or cloning vectors are used to produce multiple copies of DNA fragments. DNA cloning is used in genetic engineering to create microorganisms, plants or animals with desirable features.Biotechnology is the use of any technique involving living organisms to manufacture or change products, to improve the desired characteristics of a plant or animal, or to alter microorganisms for a purpose.
Biotechnology has a long history. Cloning is the process of producing genetically identical individuals of an organism either naturally or artificially.
In nature, many organisms produce clones through asexual reproduction. Cloning in biotechnology refers to the process of creating clones of organisms or copies of cells or DNA fragments (molecular cloning).
Cloning in biotechnology is intentional cloning of an organism or molecular cloning of DNA fragments.
In biotechnology scientists mainly use three types of cloning, known as reproductive cloning, therapeutic cloning and DNA cloning.
Biotechnology is the use of any technique involving living organisms to manufacture or change products, to improve the desired characteristics of a plant or animal, or to alter microorganisms for a purpose.. Biotechnology has a long history.
Cloning is an umbrella term to describe different processes for duplicating biological material. When the media report on cloning in the news, they are usually talking about only one type called "reproductive cloning".
Cloning is the most recent evolution of selective assisted breeding in animal husbandry. Cloning animals is a reliable way of reproducing superior livestock genetics and ensuring herds are maintained at the highest quality possible.